Sinusitis – Contagious Sinusitis Sinusitis or inflammation of the sinuses, is an exceedingly common problem, affecting millions of people around the world of all ages. The nasal sinuses consist of eight air pockets in the bones around the nose, cheeks and eyes. This cavities are lined with mucous glands, which keep the passages moist. Sinusitis […]


An Inflammatory Disorder of the Airways

November last year, the news says David Beckham suffered from asthma since childhood although there was no recognition of their own. Reason, when Beckham is seen using inhaller (ventilator) during the final of the Cup Major League Soccer, the Los Angeles Galaxy against Real Salt Lake. If true, David managed to control the disease as seen previously he had never seen a problem breathing when playing football.

Asthma specialist Dr. John Dickinson said, many athletes suffer from asthma. In 2004, nearly 2 percent of the British Olympic team was diagnosed with asthma and increased to 25 percent in 2008. Add Dr John, cycling and swimming are the highest group suffering from asthma for almost 50 percent.

* Nearly 300 million people worldwide suffer from asthma and this figure is estimated to increase by 100 million hit in 2025
* Findings from recent studies show that Asia Pacific had levels of school absenteeism is higher due to poor asthma control compared with the American States and European countries



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A Simple Way How to Handle Stress

How to Handle Stress
In everyone’s life contains stress. It could be caused by school homework, a bad boss at work, annoying co-workers, a lack of money, your children, a cheating spouse or maybe a combination. Whatever the cause of your stress, living in a state of stress means that your body is in a constant state of fight or flight. Something that is good in a life or death situation but not on a constant basis.

The effects of living in a state of stress are numerous and very unhealthy. The first thing that you need to do is to learn to relax, because when you’re filled with anxiety it’s almost impossible to even think clearly enough to solve your problems.

The following article on how to handle stress contains several hints and tips on removing stress from your life.

Difficulty: Moderately Easy

Things You’ll Need:

  • deep breathing
  • yoga
  • walking
  • hypnosis
  • friends
    nice view beach

    Use deep breathing:
    First get into a comfortable position and close your eyes. Then breath in through your nostrils for five seconds and repeat the word “in” under your breath. Then breath out for five seconds and repeat the word “out” under your breath. Continue your deep breath for a few minutes while visualizing your self at the beach or in some other relaxing situation.

  • hypnosis

    Use self hypnosis:
    A hypnosis tape can provide immediate relief for stress.


    Learn yoga:
    Try and check out a yoga tape from you local library, most people find that it helps immensely. Yoga, walking or other types of exercise has been proven to relax the mind and body thus helping to relieve stress.


  • Spend time with friends:
    Everyone needs someone to talk to, which is why spending time with family and friends can be so important.
For more information please click on the below link.

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    Tips & Warnings

    • unplug your telephone and take a hot bath.
    • watch a funny sitcom, or movie.
    • take some me time and go to a spa, or maybe a weekend away just relaxing.
    • Problems with stress can be very dangerous if ignored.
    • If ever you feel that your problems are too much to handle quickly seek medical advice. Your life is worth too much to waste!
    Things that are associated with stress


    (Rheumatic Diseases)

    Arthritis is the medical term for any disease that produces inflammation, pain and stiffness in one or more joints. There are more than 100 different types, all of which are classified as rheumatic diseases.
    Arthritis develops when cartilage, the tough, slippery material covering the ends of bones is destroyed faster than the body can repair it. Aging, excessive wear and tear, infection and inflammation contribute to the process. As the cartilage roughens and wears down, the ends of the bones become increasingly exposed and eventually damaged.
    Arthritis Osteo
    Arthritis Spine

    Osteoarthritis or degenerative joint disease is the most common type. It had been attributed to the natural deterioration from aging and overuse of joints, but researchers now believe that it is a biochemical problem that causes a breakdown in the cartilage.
    Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most serious forms. It is systemic and can affect blood vessels, heart and other organs in addition to joints. Though the cause is unknown, most researchers consider it an autoimmune disorder, in which the immune system attacks the body. Its course is unpredictable but most people experience remissions in which the disease is quiescent, interrupted by flare-ups that cause progressive, irreversible damage.

    Some types of arthritis are caused by infection, including such sexually transmitted diseases as gonorrhea and Reiter’s syndrome. Autoimmune diseases such as lupus (Chronic Rheumatic Disease – frequently reffered to as SLE for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus) often involve an immune-system attacks on joints. Still other types such as gout are due to metabolic defects which are often hereditary.


    If you have arthritis, you may experience:
    • Joint pain
    • Joint swelling
    • Reduced ability to move the joint
    • Redness of the skin around a joint
    • Stiffness, especially in the morning
    • Warmth around a joint

    Signs and tests

    First, your doctor will take a detailed medical history to see if arthritis or another musculoskeletal problem is the likely cause of your symptoms.
    Next, a thorough physical examination may show that fluid is collecting in the joint. (This is called an “effusion.”) The joint may be tender when it is gently pressed, and may be warm and red (especially in infectious arthritis and autoimmune arthritis). It may be painful or difficult to rotate the joints in some directions. This is known as “limited range-of-motion.”
    In some autoimmune forms of arthritis, the joints may become deformed if the disease is not treated. Such joint deformities are the hallmarks of severe, untreated rheumatoid arthritis.
    Tests vary depending on the suspected cause. They often include blood tests and joint x-rays. To check for infection and other causes of arthritis (like gout caused by crystals), joint fluid is removed from the joint with a needle and examined under a microscope. See the specific types of arthritis for further information.
    Treatment of arthritis depends on the particular cause, which joints are affected, severity, and how the condition affects your daily activities. Your age and occupation will also be taken into consideration when your doctor works with you to create a treatment plan.
    If possible, treatment will focus on eliminating the underlying cause of the arthritis. However, the cause is NOT necessarily curable, as with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment, therefore, aims at reducing your pain and discomfort and preventing further disability.
    It is possible to greatly improve your symptoms from osteoarthritis and other long-term types of arthritis without medications. In fact, making lifestyle changes without medications is preferable for osteoarthritis and other forms of joint inflammation. If needed, medications should be used in addition to lifestyle changes.
    Exercise for arthritis is necessary to maintain healthy joints, relieve stiffness, reduce pain and fatigue, and improve muscle and bone strength. Your exercise program should be tailored to you as an individual. Work with a physical therapist to design an individualized program, which should include:
    • Low-impact aerobic activity (also called endurance exercise)
    • Range of motion exercises for flexibility
    • Strength training for muscle tone
    A physical therapist can apply heat and cold treatments as needed and fit you for splints or orthotic (straightening) devices to support and align joints. This may be particularly necessary for rheumatoid arthritis. Your physical therapist may also consider water therapy, ice massage, or transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS).
    Rest is just as important as exercise. Sleeping 8 to 10 hours per night and taking naps during the day can help you recover from a flare-up more quickly and may even help prevent exacerbations. You should also:
    • Avoid holding one position for too long.
    • Avoid positions or movements that place extra stress on your affected joints.
    • Modify your home to make activities easier. For example, have grab bars in the shower, the tub, and near the toilet.
    • Reduce stress, which can aggravate your symptoms. Try meditation or guided imagery. And talk to your physical therapist about yoga or tai chi.

    Other measures to try include:
    • Apply capsaicin cream (derived from hot chili peppers) to the skin over your painful joints. You may feel improvement after applying the cream for 3-7 days.
    • Eat a diet rich in vitamins and minerals, especially antioxidants like vitamin E. These are found in fruits and vegetables. Get selenium from Brewer’s yeast, wheat germ, garlic, whole grains, sunflower seeds, and Brazil nuts. Get omega-3 fatty acids from cold water fish (like salmon, mackerel, and herring), flaxseed, rapeseed (canola) oil, soybeans, soybean oil, pumpkin seeds, and walnuts.
    • Taking glucosamine and chondroitin — these form the building blocks of cartilage, the substance that lines joints. These supplements are available at health food stores or supermarkets. While some studies show such supplements may reduce osteoarthritis symptoms, others show no benefit. However, since these products are regarded as safe, they are reasonable to try and many patients find their symptoms improve.


      Your doctor will choose from a variety of medications as needed. Generally, the first drugs to try are available without a prescription. These include:
      • Acetaminophen (Tylenol) — recommended by the American College of Rheumatology and the American Geriatrics Society as first-line treatment for osteoarthritis. Take up to 4 grams a day (two arthritis-strength Tylenol every 8 hours). This can provide significant relief of arthritis pain without many of the side effects of prescription drugs. DO NOT exceed the recommended doses of acetaminophen or take the drug in combination with large amounts of alcohol. These actions may damage your liver.
      • Aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen — these nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often effective in combating arthritis pain. However, they have many potential risks, especially if used for a long time. They should not be taken in any amount without consulting your doctor. Potential side effects include heart attack, stroke, stomach ulcers, bleeding from the digestive tract, and kidney damage. In 2005, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) asked makers of NSAIDs to include a warning label on their product that alerts users of an increased risk for heart attack, stroke, and gastrointestinal bleeding. If you have kidney or liver disease, or a history of gastrointestinal bleeding, you should not take these medicines unless your doctor specifically recommends them.
      Prescription medicines include:
      • Biologics— these are the most recent breakthrough for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Such medications, including etanercept (Enbrel), infliximab (Remicade) and adalimumab (Humira), are administered by injection and can dramatically improve your quality of life. Newer biologics include Orencia (abatacept) and Rituxan (rituximab).
      • Corticosteroids (“steroids”) — these are medications that suppress the immune system and symptoms of inflammation. They are often injected into painful osteoarthritic joints. Steroids are used to treat autoimmune forms of arthritis but should be avoided in infectious arthritis. Steroids have multiple side effects, including upset stomach and gastrointestinal bleeding, high blood pressure, thinning of bones, cataracts, and increased infections. The risks are most pronounced when steroids are taken for long periods of time or at high doses. Close supervision by a physician is essential.
      • Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors — These drugs block an inflammation-promoting enzyme called COX-2. This class of drugs was initially believed to work as well as traditional NSAIDs, but with fewer stomach problems. However, numerous reports of heart attacks and stroke have prompted the FDA to re-evaluate the risks and benefits of the COX-2s. Celecoxib (Celebrex) is still available, but labeled with strong warnings and a recommendation that it be prescribed at the lowest possible dose for the shortest duration possible. Talk to your doctor about whether COX-2s are right for you.
      • Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs — these have been used traditionally to treat rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune causes of arthritis. These drugs include gold salts, penicillamine, sulfasalazine, and hydroxychloroquine. More recently, methotrexate has been shown to slow the progression of rheumatoid arthritis and improve your quality of life. Methotrexate itself can be highly toxic and requires frequent blood tests for patients on the medication.
      • Immunosuppressants — these drugs, like azathioprine or cyclophosphamide, are used for serious cases of rheumatoid arthritis when other medications have failed.
      It is very important to take your medications as directed by your doctor. If you are having difficulty doing so (for example, due to intolerable side effects), you should talk to your doctor.
      In some cases, surgery to rebuild the joint (arthroplasty) or to replace the joint (such as a total knee joint replacement) may help maintain a more normal lifestyle. The decision to perform joint replacement surgery is normally made when other alternatives, such as lifestyle changes and medications, are no longer effective.
      Normal joints contain a lubricant called synovial fluid. In joints with arthritis, this fluid is not produced in adequate amounts. In some cases, a doctor may inject the arthritic joint with a manmade version of joint fluid. The synthetic fluid may postpone the need for surgery at least temporarily and improve the quality of life for persons with arthritis.
      Expectations (prognosis)
      A few arthritis-related disorders can be completely cured with treatment. Most are chronic (long-term) conditions, however, and the goal of treatment is to control the pain and minimize joint damage. Chronic arthritis frequently goes in and out of remission.


      • Chronic pain
      • Lifestyle restrictions or disability

      Calling your health care provider

      Call your doctor if:
      • Your joint pain persists beyond 3 days.
      • You have severe unexplained joint pain.
      • The affected joint is significantly swollen.
      • You have a hard time moving the joint.
      • Your skin around the joint is red or hot to the touch.
      • You have a fever or have lost weight unintentionally.


      If arthritis is diagnosed and treated early, you can prevent joint damage. Find out if you have a family history of arthritis and share this information with your doctor, even if you have no joint symptoms.
      Osteoarthritis may be more likely to develop if you abuse your joints (injure them many times or over-use them while injured). Take care not to overwork a damaged or sore joint. Similarly, avoid excessive repetitive motions.
      Excess weight also increases the risk for developing osteoarthritis in the knees and possibly in the hips. See the article on body mass index to learn whether your weight is healthy.



      Pusat Perubatan KPMC Puchong
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      Kajang Perdana
      43000 Kajang Selangor
      Tel: 03-87397077

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      Tel: 03-80624073

      D’Cruz DP, Khamashta MA, Hughes GR. Systemic lupus erythematosus. Lancet. 2007;369(9561):587-96.
      Glass GG. Osteoarthritis. Dis Mon. 2006;52:343-362.
      Gregory PJ, Sperry M, Wilson AF. Dietary supplements for osteoarthritis. Am Fam Physician. 2008;77:177-184.
      Smolen JS, Aletaha D, Koeller M, Weisman MH, Emery P. New therapies for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet. 2007;270(9602):1861-74.

      Find out more information below;


        Alzheimer’s disease
        Classification and external resources

        Comparison of a normal aged brain (left) and an Alzheimer’s patient’s brain (right). Differential characteristics are pointed out.

        (Dementia of the Alzheimer type)
        Alzheimer’s disease is a brain disorder in which memory, thought processes and behavior become progressively impaired. It is named for Dr. Alois Alzheimer, the German neurologist who first described it in the early 1900s.  He discovered during an autopsy of a woman who had died of progressive dementia that her brain was riddled with plaques and tangles of abnormal nerve cells, the hallmarks of the disease.
        What causes Alzheimer’s disease remains unknown. Woman have a higher incidence of Alzheimer’s than men and recent research indicates that the hormonal changes following menopause may play a role. Brains afflicted with Alzheimer’s have large amounts of an abnormal substance, called amyloid protein. Researchers are now trying to determine whether these abnormalities stem from a viral infection or genetic trait or perhaps are caused by an environmental toxin.

        Diagnostic Studies and Procedures
        Only an autopsy can reveal the brain irregularities of Alzheimer’s disease. Thus diagnosis in a living person requires a process of elimination  to rule  out other possible causes of progressive mental deterioration.

        The physical examination is usually concentrated on neurological function, although a doctor may also look for circulatory or respirotary disorders. Special studies might include psychological test, blood and urine analyses, skull X-rays, electroencephalography and perhaps a CT brain scan or MRI.

        Medical Treatments
        Until recently, there was little that doctors could do to prevent or treat Alzheimer’s disease. But on-going studies and new drugs are altering this situation. For example, several studies show a 40 percent reduction in the incidence of Alzheimer’s among older woman on estrogen replacement therapy. Researchers have also found that estrogen seems to slow progression of  the disease.

        In 1997 researchers reported that ibuprofen, a common painkiller, seemed to protect against Alzheimer’s. But more study is needed to prove this.

        About 20 percent of the Alzheimer’s patients who take tacrine (Cognex), a drug released in 1993, show significant improvement in mental functioning and in additional 20 percent the disease’s progress is slowed. However, many patients cannot take tacrine because it can cause serious liver damage. Patients taking Cognex must undergo frequent blood tests to determine if there is any liver damage, the major adverse effect of the drug.

        Some of the more troubling symptoms of Alzheimer’s can be treated with older medications. For example, sedatives may be prescribed for sleep problems, antipsychotic drugs to calm psychosis and aggressiveness and stimulants such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) to improve mood.

        Alternative Therapies
        As with medical treatments, the goal of any alternative therapy for Alzheimer disease is to provide comfort.
        Herbal Medicine. Substances derived from leaves of the ginkgo tree have been shown to increase blood flow to the brain. Herbalist have long recommended ginkgo products to improve memory, recent research supports some of these claims.
        Hydrotherapy. As an alternative to drug, some nursing homes use warm baths to soothe agitated or anxious patients. A word of caution, however: To prevent accidental drowning, an elderly person with Alzheimer’s should never be left alone in a hot tub or bath.
        Music Therapy. There is ample evidence that people with declining mental function can receive a great deal of pleasure from listening to music, both alone and from group activities planned around singing. Even when verbal memory fades, the ability to recognize and remember music remains intact. Music therapists find that playing songs popular during a patient’s youth, or music associated with a particular time and place, jogs others memories. 
        Nutrition Therapy. Some proponents of vitamin therapy recommend high doses of antioxidants – vitamins A,C and E and the mineral selenium – to slow the progress of Alzheimer’s disease. When consumed in food, these nutrients help counter the damage of unstable molecules called free radicals, which are a by-product of oxygen metabolism. As yet, there is no convincing scientific evidence that antioxidant supplements can benefit Alzheimer’s patients.
        Pet Therapy. Nursing homes often provide gentle cats, dogs or other animals for Alzheimer’s patients. Simply making contact with another living creature can be immensely conforting.
        Self-Treatment. Following a set routine in a familiar environment helps Alzheimer’s patients cope with the early stages of memory loss. Unavoidable changes should be made gradually to avoid disorientation and confussion. In the early stages of  memory loss, some Alzheimer’s patients write notes to themselves and post them in obvious places. This eases some of the anxiety over forgetting important task and appointments. Family members can coax memories by recalling past events.

        Other Causes of  Dementia
        During the diagnostic process, disorders that should be ruled out include alcoholism, nutritional deficiencies, depression, overuse of tranquilizers and other drug effecting mental function, a brain tumor, stroke, Parkinson’s disease and circulatory problems.

        Get more information from the link below.