Sinusitis – Contagious Sinusitis Sinusitis or inflammation of the sinuses, is an exceedingly common problem, affecting millions of people around the world of all ages. The nasal sinuses consist of eight air pockets in the bones around the nose, cheeks and eyes. This cavities are lined with mucous glands, which keep the passages moist. Sinusitis […]
An Inflammatory Disorder of the Airways
Asthma specialist Dr. John Dickinson said, many athletes suffer from asthma. In 2004, nearly 2 percent of the British Olympic team was diagnosed with asthma and increased to 25 percent in 2008. Add Dr John, cycling and swimming are the highest group suffering from asthma for almost 50 percent.
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- Joint pain
- Joint swelling
- Reduced ability to move the joint
- Redness of the skin around a joint
- Stiffness, especially in the morning
- Warmth around a joint
Signs and tests
- Low-impact aerobic activity (also called endurance exercise)
- Range of motion exercises for flexibility
- Strength training for muscle tone
- Avoid holding one position for too long.
- Avoid positions or movements that place extra stress on your affected joints.
- Modify your home to make activities easier. For example, have grab bars in the shower, the tub, and near the toilet.
- Reduce stress, which can aggravate your symptoms. Try meditation or guided imagery. And talk to your physical therapist about yoga or tai chi.
- Apply capsaicin cream (derived from hot chili peppers) to the skin over your painful joints. You may feel improvement after applying the cream for 3-7 days.
- Eat a diet rich in vitamins and minerals, especially antioxidants like vitamin E. These are found in fruits and vegetables. Get selenium from Brewer’s yeast, wheat germ, garlic, whole grains, sunflower seeds, and Brazil nuts. Get omega-3 fatty acids from cold water fish (like salmon, mackerel, and herring), flaxseed, rapeseed (canola) oil, soybeans, soybean oil, pumpkin seeds, and walnuts.
- Taking glucosamine and chondroitin — these form the building blocks of cartilage, the substance that lines joints. These supplements are available at health food stores or supermarkets. While some studies show such supplements may reduce osteoarthritis symptoms, others show no benefit. However, since these products are regarded as safe, they are reasonable to try and many patients find their symptoms improve.
- Acetaminophen (Tylenol) — recommended by the American College of Rheumatology and the American Geriatrics Society as first-line treatment for osteoarthritis. Take up to 4 grams a day (two arthritis-strength Tylenol every 8 hours). This can provide significant relief of arthritis pain without many of the side effects of prescription drugs. DO NOT exceed the recommended doses of acetaminophen or take the drug in combination with large amounts of alcohol. These actions may damage your liver.
- Aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen — these nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often effective in combating arthritis pain. However, they have many potential risks, especially if used for a long time. They should not be taken in any amount without consulting your doctor. Potential side effects include heart attack, stroke, stomach ulcers, bleeding from the digestive tract, and kidney damage. In 2005, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) asked makers of NSAIDs to include a warning label on their product that alerts users of an increased risk for heart attack, stroke, and gastrointestinal bleeding. If you have kidney or liver disease, or a history of gastrointestinal bleeding, you should not take these medicines unless your doctor specifically recommends them.
- Biologics— these are the most recent breakthrough for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Such medications, including etanercept (Enbrel), infliximab (Remicade) and adalimumab (Humira), are administered by injection and can dramatically improve your quality of life. Newer biologics include Orencia (abatacept) and Rituxan (rituximab).
- Corticosteroids (“steroids”) — these are medications that suppress the immune system and symptoms of inflammation. They are often injected into painful osteoarthritic joints. Steroids are used to treat autoimmune forms of arthritis but should be avoided in infectious arthritis. Steroids have multiple side effects, including upset stomach and gastrointestinal bleeding, high blood pressure, thinning of bones, cataracts, and increased infections. The risks are most pronounced when steroids are taken for long periods of time or at high doses. Close supervision by a physician is essential.
- Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors — These drugs block an inflammation-promoting enzyme called COX-2. This class of drugs was initially believed to work as well as traditional NSAIDs, but with fewer stomach problems. However, numerous reports of heart attacks and stroke have prompted the FDA to re-evaluate the risks and benefits of the COX-2s. Celecoxib (Celebrex) is still available, but labeled with strong warnings and a recommendation that it be prescribed at the lowest possible dose for the shortest duration possible. Talk to your doctor about whether COX-2s are right for you.
- Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs — these have been used traditionally to treat rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune causes of arthritis. These drugs include gold salts, penicillamine, sulfasalazine, and hydroxychloroquine. More recently, methotrexate has been shown to slow the progression of rheumatoid arthritis and improve your quality of life. Methotrexate itself can be highly toxic and requires frequent blood tests for patients on the medication.
- Immunosuppressants — these drugs, like azathioprine or cyclophosphamide, are used for serious cases of rheumatoid arthritis when other medications have failed.
- Chronic pain
- Lifestyle restrictions or disability
Calling your health care provider
- Your joint pain persists beyond 3 days.
- You have severe unexplained joint pain.
- The affected joint is significantly swollen.
- You have a hard time moving the joint.
- Your skin around the joint is red or hot to the touch.
- You have a fever or have lost weight unintentionally.
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D’Cruz DP, Khamashta MA, Hughes GR. Systemic lupus erythematosus. Lancet. 2007;369(9561):587-96.
Glass GG. Osteoarthritis. Dis Mon. 2006;52:343-362.
Gregory PJ, Sperry M, Wilson AF. Dietary supplements for osteoarthritis. Am Fam Physician. 2008;77:177-184.
Smolen JS, Aletaha D, Koeller M, Weisman MH, Emery P. New therapies for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet. 2007;270(9602):1861-74.
Find out more information below;
- Adult Still’s disease
- Ankylosing spondylitis
- Fungal infections such as blastomycosis
- Gonococcal arthritis
- Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (in children)
- Other bacterial infections (nongonococcal bacterial arthritis)
- Psoriatic arthritis
- Reactive arthritis (Reiter syndrome)
- Rheumatoid arthritis (in adults)
- Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
- Tertiary Lyme disease
- Tuberculous arthritis
- Viral arthritis
|Classification and external resources|
Comparison of a normal aged brain (left) and an Alzheimer’s patient’s brain (right). Differential characteristics are pointed out.
Get more information from the link below.
- 1 Characteristics
- 2 Causes
- 3 Pathophysiology
- 4 Diagnosis
- 5 Prevention
- 6 Management
- 7 Prognosis
- 8 Epidemiology
- 9 History
- 10 Society and culture
- 11 Research directions
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links